Charlene Hoffman Snyder.

Caselli, M.D., Amylou C. Dueck, Ph.D., David Osborne, Ph.D., Marwan N. Sabbagh, M.D., Donald J. Connor, Ph.D., Geoffrey L. Ahern, M.D., Ph.D., Leslie C. Baxter, Ph.D., Steven Z. Rapcsak, M.D., Jiong Shi, M.D., Bryan K. Woodruff, M.D., Dona E.C. Locke, Ph.D., Charlene Hoffman Snyder, C.N.P., Gene E. Alexander, Ph.D., Rosa Rademakers, Ph.D., and Eric M. Reiman, M.D.1-3 Although storage loss may be the earliest cognitive transformation in Alzheimer’s disease,4-9 distinguishing early disease from normal aging can be difficult.14-16 Such decline correlates with minimal cerebral metabolism just as much as 5 to a decade prior to the onset of cognitive symptoms.17 The point of transition from normal aging to Alzheimer’s disease has been sought in population-based research, but cross-sectional designs are limited by demographic differences among subjects that influence neuropsychological test outcomes.The new technique provided by Kyohei Terao from Kyoto University, and co-workers from The University of Tokyo, uses micron-sized hooks controlled by lasers to capture and straighten a DNA strand with excellent accuracy and care. When a DNA molecule is normally manipulated and straightened by microhooks and bobbins, the gene location could be determined quickly with high-spatial quality, says Terao. The group used optical tweezers – firmly focused laser beams – to regulate the Z-designed micro hook and pick up an individual DNA thread . The hook is barbed like an arrow, therefore the thread can’t escape. When caught on the hook, the DNA could be moved around by refocusing the lasers to fresh positions accurately. But exactly like thread in a sewing machine, an extended DNA chain can be unwieldy – so the researchers built micro bobbins to wind the chain around.