The data on whether programs raised anticipations to abstain is less clear.

Much like a medical trial in medicine, this approach compares outcomes for two statistically equivalent organizations – an application group and a control group – made by random assignment. Youth in this program group were eligible for and expected to have the abstinence education plan services, while those in the control group received just the most common health, family life, and sex education services available in the institution and community. Impacts were estimated as the mean difference in outcomes between the two groups. Youth were enrolled in the analysis sample over three consecutive college years, from fall 1999 through fall 2001, and randomly assigned within universities to either the scheduled plan or the control group.Veterinary staff should be mobilized to tighten border control and inspections. Priority measures include: suitable culling respecting OIE criteria in and around outbreak spots, band vaccination around infected areas, the control of livestock and people moving to and from outbreak zones, comprehensive disinfection, hygiene and great farming practices. Just vaccines that fulfill OIE international quality standards ought to be used. FAO and OIE welcomed the emergency steps applied in Kaduna, Plateau and Kano state, where suspected bird flu instances in poultry are under investigation. However, control procedures need to be intensified applying standard procedures suggested by FAO and the OIE worldwide recommendations.